CARDIOLOGY

Principal facts

  • • The cardiovascular diseases are the first cause of mortality in the world: it dies each year more people because of cardiovascular diseases than of very other causes.
  • • We estimate at 17,3 million the number of deaths with the cardiovascular diseases, that is to say 30 % of total world mortality. Among these deaths, one estimates that 7,3 million is due to a coronary cardiopathy and 6,2 million with a AVC (statistics 2008).
  • • More than 80 % of the deaths intervene in countries with average revenue or weak and almost also touch men and women.
  • • From here 2030, nearly 23,6 million people will die of a cardiovascular disease (cardiopathy or AVC mainly). According to projections, these diseases should remain the first causes of death.

What are the cardiovascular diseases ?

The cardiovascular diseases constitute a whole of disorders affecting the heart and the blood-vessels, which includes :

  • • the coronary cardiopathies (concerning the blood-vessels which feed the cardiac muscle)
  • • the cerebro-vascular diseases (concerning the blood-vessels which feed the brain)
  • • the peripheral arteriopathies (concerning the blood-vessels which feed the arms and the legs)
  • • rheumatic cardiopathies, affecting the muscle and the valves cardiac and resulting from an acute rheumatoid arthritis, caused by a streptocoque bacterium
  • • congenital cardiac malformations (malformations of the structure of the heart already present at the birth)
  • • major venous thromboses and pulmonary embolisms (obstruction of the veins of the legs by a clot blood, likely to be released and migrate towards the heart or the lungs).

What are the risk factors?

  • • The independent factors of risks of the cardiopathies and the AVC, are a bad food, a lack of physical-activity, the nicotinism and the harmful use of alcohol. These behavioral risk factors are responsible for approximately 80 % of the diseases coronary and cerebral vascular.
  • • The effects of a bad food or physical inactivity can appear by hypertension, a rise in the rate of glucose or lipid level, an excess of weight or obesity, these metabolic effects being called “intermediate risk factors” or risk factors.
  • • There exist also a certain number of subjacent determinants of the chronic diseases, they are to some extent the “causes of the causes”. They reflect the action of the main motors of the social, economic and cultural evolution: globalization, urbanization and ageing of the populations. Among them also the poverty and the stress and of the hereditary factors appear.

Source : WHO